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The Number 19: Properties and Meanings

19 is a Prime Number.

19 is a Centered Hexagonal Number.

19 is an Octahedral Number.

19 can be Partitioned in 490 ways.

19 can be Partitioned 10 times with each term no larger than 2

19 can be Partitioned 40 times with each term no larger than 3

19 can be Partitioned 94 times with each term no larger than 4

19 can be Partitioned 164 times with each term no larger than 5

19 can be Partitioned 235 times with each term no larger than 6

19 can be Partitioned 300 times with each term no larger than 7

19 can be Partitioned 352 times with each term no larger than 8

19 can be Partitioned 393 times with each term no larger than 9

19 can be Partitioned 423 times with each term no larger than 10

19 can be Partitioned 445 times with each term no larger than 11

19 can be Partitioned 460 times with each term no larger than 12

19 can be Partitioned 471 times with each term no larger than 13

19 can be Partitioned 478 times with each term no larger than 14

19 can be Partitioned 483 times with each term no larger than 15

19 can be Partitioned 486 times with each term no larger than 16

19 can be Partitioned 488 times with each term no larger than 17

19 can be Partitioned 489 times with each term no larger than 18

19 = 4! - 3! + 2! - 1!.

19 is the maximum number of 4th powers needed to sum to any number.

The 4th Centered Triangular Number=19
Centered Triangular Number Diagram

The sum of all the Vertices, Edges and Faces of the 5 Platonic Solids totals 190=19x10.

The 5 Platonic Solid + the 13 Archimedean Solids + the surrounding sphere=19.

The total number of Vertices of all the platonic and Archimedean Solids=608=19x32.

The total number of edges + the total number of faces of all the platonic and Archimedean Solids=1482=19x78.

This magic star is composed of the numbers 1 to 19. It adds to 64 along every line. Each circle+ the center also=64.

Magic Star
This magic star is composed of the numbers 1 to 19. It adds to 46 along every line.

There are 81 stable Chemical Elements. They naturally divide into four groups of 19+1. Plus one element which doesnt fit into any of the four groups: element number 19.

My investigations indicate that there are exactly 19 ratios between the number of stable isotopes an element has and its outer electron number. However this is not fully verified.

The Chemical Element Potassium has an atomic number of 19.

The Chemical Element Fluorine has one Stable Isotope. It has 19 neutrons.

There is only one numerically linear magic hexagon. It consists of the numbers 1-19 so arranged that they add to 38(ie 19x2) in every direction.
Magic Hexagon

Actually I have discovered another magic hexagon:
Magic Hexagon of the 19 Tao Imbued Permutations

There are 20 naturally ocurring amino acids:19 left handed + 1 which is neither left nor right handed.

The Metonic cycle used to calculate the date of Easter is 19 years long.

Hangeul (the Korean alphabet) has 19 consonants.

0f the 81 permutations exactly 19 cancel out to neutral/tao.

Of the 27 permutations of yin, yang and tao over 3 places exactly 19 contain at least one tao line.

The early Norse calendar is based upon a cycle of 19 days, or Golden Numbers.

The centerpiece of Bahá'í community life is the 19-Day Feast. The Bahá'í calendar is made up of 19 months of 19 days each. Note that the period of Ayyam-i-Ha (Intercalary Days) adjust the Bahá'í year to the solar cycle.

The flower of life symbol consists of 19 interlocking circles.
Flower of Life Symbol

The "astral"body is said to be composed of 19 elements: intelligence; ego; feeling; mind(sense conciousness) 5 instruments of knowledge; the subtle counterparts of the senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch; five instruments of action, the mental correspondence for the executive abilities to procreate, excrete, talk, walk, and exercise manual skill; and five instruments of life force, those empowered to perform the crystallizing, assimilating, eliminating, metabolizing, and circulating functions of the body. This subtle astral encasement of nineteen elements survives the death of the physical body.
Quoted from "Autobiography of a Yogi" by Paramhansa Yogananda

It is said that there are actually 19 main chakra levels: The base chakra been the 7th and the crown chakra being the 13th. So there are 3 sets of 7 which share chakras 7 and 13 so that the 21 is in reality 19. The 3 levels correspond with the 3 Gunas.

The holy Koran has the number 19 encoded right through it and says explicitly "Over it is 19".(sura 74:30)
Check out this link for an indepth

The board of the ancient game of "GO" has 19 vertical and 19 horizontal lines.

Film: K-19: The Widowmaker.

The Year 19 AD

In the year 19 AD Germanicus, Roman general died.

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Results for mathematics

Mathematics for the Nonmathematician (Dover Books on Mathematics)
by Morris KlineSearch for Morris Kline
$0.04 new/used

Practical, scientific, philosophical, and artistic problems have caused men to investigate mathematics. But there is one other motive which is as strong as any of these ? the search for beauty. Mathematics is an art, and as such affords the pleasures which all the arts afford." In this erudite, entertaining college-level text, Morris Kline, Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at New York University, provides the liberal arts student with a detailed treatment of mathematics in a cultural and historical context. The book can also act as a self-study vehicle for advanced high school students and laymen.
Professor Kline begins with an overview, tracing the development of mathematics to the ancient Greeks, and following its evolution through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance to the present day. Subsequent chapters focus on specific subject areas, such as "Logic and Mathematics," "Number: The Fundamental Concept," "Parametric Equations and Curvilinear Motion," "The Differential Calculus," and "The Theory of Probability." Each of these sections offers a step-by-step explanation of concepts and then tests the student's understanding with exercises and problems. At the same time, these concepts are linked to pure and applied science, engineering, philosophy, the social sciences or even the arts.
In one section, Professor Kline discusses non-Euclidean geometry, ranking it with evolution as one of the "two concepts which have most profoundly revolutionized our intellectual development since the nineteenth century." His lucid treatment of this difficult subject starts in the 1800s with the pioneering work of Gauss, Lobachevsky, Bolyai and Riemann, and moves forward to the theory of relativity, explaining the mathematical, scientific and philosophical aspects of this pivotal breakthrough. Mathematics for the Nonmathematician exemplifies Morris Kline's rare ability to simplify complex subjects for the nonspecialist.

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Algebra - The Very Basics
by Metin BektasSearch for Metin Bektas

If you're looking for a gentle introduction to basic mathematics, look no further. This book picks you up at the very beginning and guides you through the foundations of algebra using lots of examples and no-nonsense explanations. Each chapter contains well-chosen exercises as well as all the solutions. No prior knowledge is required.

Topics include: Exponents, Brackets, Linear Equations and Quadratic Equations. For a more detailed table of contents, use the "Look Inside" feature. From the author of "Great Formulas Explained" and "Physics! In Quantities and Examples".

Those interested in delving into the exciting field of calculus and mathematical physics after attaining the very basics of algebra are invited to continue their journey with the "Math Shorts" series, starting with "Math Shorts - Exponential and Trigonometric Functions" and the free e-book "Math Shorts - Derivatives". Readers who prefer learning the basics of probability calculations can move on to the introductory text "Statistical Snacks".
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Mathematics: A Complete Introduction (Teach Yourself)
by Hugh NeillSearch for Hugh Neill
$5.66 new/used

Maths does not have to be difficult. This book, complete with exercises and answers, forms a course which will take you from beginner or intermediate level to being a confident mathematician. This book includes simple step-by-step explanations, to help you grasp new topics or those that have previously confused you; practice questions throughout, to help you embed your learning and improve your confidence; End of chapter summaries, to help you remember the key points you've learned; All in one great-value book, so you don't need any separate workbooks or coursebooks.
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The Foundations of Mathematics
by Ian Stewart, David Tall
$19.22 new/used

The transition from school mathematics to university mathematics is seldom straightforward. Students are faced with a disconnect between the algorithmic and informal attitude to mathematics at school, versus a new emphasis on proof, based on logic, and a more abstract development of general concepts, based on set theory.

The authors have many years' experience of the potential difficulties involved, through teaching first-year undergraduates and researching the ways in which students and mathematicians think. The book explains the motivation behind abstract foundational material based on students' experiences of school mathematics, and explicitly suggests ways students can make sense of formal ideas.

This second edition takes a significant step forward by not only making the transition from intuitive to formal methods, but also by reversing the process- using structure theorems to prove that formal systems have visual and symbolic interpretations that enhance mathematical thinking. This is exemplified by a new chapter on the theory of groups.

While the first edition extended counting to infinite cardinal numbers, the second also extends the real numbers rigorously to larger ordered fields. This links intuitive ideas in calculus to the formal epsilon-delta methods of analysis. The approach here is not the conventional one of 'nonstandard analysis', but a simpler, graphically based treatment which makes the notion of an infinitesimal natural and straightforward.

This allows a further vision of the wider world of mathematical thinking in which formal definitions and proof lead to amazing new ways of defining, proving, visualising and symbolising mathematics beyond previous expectations.
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How Not to Be Wrong: The Power of Mathematical Thinking
by Jordan EllenbergSearch for Jordan Ellenberg
$8.08 new/used

The Freakonomics of math?a math-world superstar unveils the hidden beauty and logic of the world and puts its power in our hands

The math we learn in school can seem like a dull set of rules, laid down by the ancients and not to be questioned. In How Not to Be Wrong, Jordan Ellenberg shows us how terribly limiting this view is: Math isn?t confined to abstract incidents that never occur in real life, but rather touches everything we do?the whole world is shot through with it.

Math allows us to see the hidden structures underneath the messy and chaotic surface of our world. It?s a science of not being wrong, hammered out by centuries of hard work and argument. Armed with the tools of mathematics, we can see through to the true meaning of information we take for granted: How early should you get to the airport? What does ?public opinion? really represent? Why do tall parents have shorter children? Who really won Florida in 2000? And how likely are you, really, to develop cancer?

How Not to Be Wrong presents the surprising revelations behind all of these questions and many more, using the mathematician?s method of analyzing life and exposing the hard-won insights of the academic community to the layman?minus the jargon. Ellenberg chases mathematical threads through a vast range of time and space, from the everyday to the cosmic, encountering, among other things, baseball, Reaganomics, daring lottery schemes, Voltaire, the replicability crisis in psychology, Italian Renaissance painting, artificial languages, the development of non-Euclidean geometry, the coming obesity apocalypse, Antonin Scalia?s views on crime and punishment, the psychology of slime molds, what Facebook can and can?t figure out about you, and the existence of God.

Ellenberg pulls from history as well as from the latest theoretical developments to provide those not trained in math with the knowledge they need. Math, as Ellenberg says, is ?an atomic-powered prosthesis that you attach to your common sense, vastly multiplying its reach and strength.? With the tools of mathematics in hand, you can understand the world in a deeper, more meaningful way. How Not to Be Wrong will show you how.
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Mathematics for the Practical Man: Explaining Simply and Quickly All the Elements of Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, Logarithms, Coördinate Geometry, Calculus with Answers to Problems
by George HoweSearch for George Howe
$5.64 new/used

A review from The Sibley Journal of Engineering, Volume 30:

?Books for self-instruction are constantly being sought. In this book mathematics, from algebra through calculus, has been treated in such a manner as to be clear to anyone. Men who wish to study a part of mathematics which they have not hitherto had, engineers who wish to refer to phases of mathematics which so easily slip from the memory, students who desire a simple reference book, will find this manual just the book for which they have been looking.?
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Secrets of Mental Math: The Mathemagician's Guide to Lightning Calculation and Amazing Math Tricks
by Arthur Benjamin, Michael Shermer
$3.21 new/used

These simple math secrets and tricks will forever change how you look at the world of numbers.

Secrets of Mental Math will have you thinking like a math genius in no time. Get ready to amaze your friends?and yourself?with incredible calculations you never thought you could master, as renowned ?mathemagician? Arthur Benjamin shares his techniques for lightning-quick calculations and amazing number tricks. This book will teach you to do math in your head faster than you ever thought possible, dramatically improve your memory for numbers, and?maybe for the first time?make mathematics fun.

Yes, even you can learn to do seemingly complex equations in your head; all you need to learn are a few tricks. You?ll be able to quickly multiply and divide triple digits, compute with fractions, and determine squares, cubes, and roots without blinking an eye. No matter what your age or current math ability, Secrets of Mental Math will allow you to perform fantastic feats of the mind effortlessly. This is the math they never taught you in school.

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